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Diabetes is a chronic health situation, in which there is a high-level of glucose in the blood. There are basically two types of this condition, based on the pathogenesis. So many factors such as nutrition, weight and others have been associated with this condition
Diabetes to also believed to have some genetic origin, in a situation where by a member of the family is affected, the condition can be transferred from one generation to another.
There are three major ways or methods that have been proved to be effective as far as managing this disease is concerned. They include diet , exercise and medication. Healthy eating is very important as far as controlling diabetes in concerned. How much one eats ,the time and the type of food eating is also another determinant factor in regulating your blood sugar level. One needs to have a set time or a schedule for eating that they will stick to and then to ensure that they eat a well balance diet with all the nutrients present and at controlled quantity as overfeeding could have a negative effect as far management of the disease is concerned.
Exercise is also very vital for the diabetic patients and so one needs to talk to their doctors on the type of exercises and when to do them as this could greatly affect the levels of the glucose in the blood. Some exercises are strenuous and might not be recommended for particular patients while some are less stressful and in-addition it is important for one to stay hydrated and maybe take some small snacks in between the exercise in-case the blood sugar goes down below normal levels.
The common medication for diabetes on insulin depending on the type of diabetes and other drugs that are able to lower your levels of glucose down to normal levels and so it is important for one to discuss with their doctors on the right choice of medication.
Kidney failure is the last step of kidney disease whereby if can no longer excrete the unwanted substances out of the body and regulates the amount of water as well as acid bases balance and other important functions. The normal human has two kidneys though one can be able to survive and live normally with only one kidney. When the kidney fails, one is usually put on a dialysis machine that helps in filtering the blood of any unwanted debris that could otherwise be toxic to the body. Below are some of the ways that one can prevent liver failure:
- Avoiding or stopping smoking, this is because cigarette smoking has a lot bad effects to your health including kidney failure. Smoking will increase your blood pressure which could easily destroy your kidneys as well.
- For those who are hypertensive, they really need to get a hold of themselves and make sure that they really have their blood pressure under control because chronic hypertension is a risk factor for kidney failure.
- Alcohol consumption adds a lot of strain to your kidneys and so quitting alcohol consumption is one of the ways that you can help preventing any damage to your kidneys.
- Drinking a lot of water ensure that your body is well hydrated and there is a balance between water input and output is essential as far as maintaining the normal functioning of your kidney and prevention of kidney failure in the long run.
- Scheduling regular urine and blood tests will ensure that your kidney function ability is out to check and any deviations from the norm could be further examined and managed accordingly.
In conclusion, some medical procedures like x-rays and others could increase one’s risk for kidney failure and so before these procedures are performed, a thorough discussion with your doctor is important to avoid any damage of further destroying the kidneys.
A diagnosis of adult onset diabetes is not a death sentence. Nor does it – as was once the case – condemn you to a life of greatly restricted culinary choices. In many cases diabetes is caused by poor nutrition and other life-style choices. In many cases, it can be controlled and sometimes cured by a sensible diet and sufficient exercise.
It is important to know what you should and should not eat. Taking the time to educate yourself can, literally, change your life.It is important to restrict the number of calories you consume, particularly the number of carbohydrate calories. This is true for everyone. Eating an unlimited number of carbs and calories will lead to overweight, possibly obesity and possibly diabetes. It is also important to drink an adequate amount of water to help process the food that you are taking in.
There are many diet plans out there which lay out exactly what you should eat for breakfast, lunch and dinner (plus some allowed snacks), but the University of Idaho Extension Service (among others) has collaborated with a number of dietitians and certified diabetes educators in order to develop a simple meal-planning tool. The result is “The Healthy Diabetes Plate”, not unlike the new government recommendations for healthy eating. With this method, instead of having to follow a strict routine, the diabetic is able to follow the guidelines. He or she soon learns what is acceptable on the diet and what is not.
All the advice and recommendations can be summed up in one sentence: “Do not eat processed food”. Do not eat bread that has a shelf-life of more than three days; buy freshly baked bread (or bake your own). Do not eat chips and sugary cereals or anything that contains genetically modified corn syrup. That accounts for just about anything that comes out of a package. Eat food that was grown not manufactured.
Healthy is such a subjective term.
Taken in isolation, many dished could be considered unhealthy, but as part of a traditional diet, they are much more acceptable. Most traditional dishes made from scratch are perfectly healthy, while their counterpart out of box probably is not. One very simple rule for healthy eating is eat only food that has been grown, not food” which has been manufactured.
So-called soul food has its roots in African American culture. Southern cooking describes pretty much the same stuff. “Traditional” America dished like Grits& Greens or Jumbalaya or jerk chicken all trace their roots back to Africa and were introduced to the America diet via the slaves who were brought to the American shores.
The diet of the African slaves had already been influenced – according to some food historians – by Europeans who had taken their cuisine to West Africa long before the slave trade started. Whatever the origins, the slave brought to the United States dished such as collard greens, black-eyed peas, okra and sweet potatoes. Deep-fried fish and chicken also probably came fro Africa.
There are ways that these much-loved dishes can be made “healthier” Instead of deep-fry9ng everything, many dishes can be oven-roasted, using considerably less fat. It is even possible to turn Southern comfort foods into acceptable vegetarian dishes. Even bacon can be a part of a healthy diet if that diet includes lots of vegetables.
Southern cuisine is sweet, savory and spicy. These characteristics are what make a jerk marinade absolutely addictive. It can be used on pork loin, or firm white fish or even goat. Jerked meat combines well with slightly sweet side dishes like sweet potatoes or cornbread.
The so-called Cuban-Style Pork & Rice is similar to paella. Both are a great way to feed a hungry crowd. There is a basic recipe, but the inventive cook adds to that whatever happens to be on hand, with a liberal sprinkling of spice and exotic flavors, of course.
Oven-Fried Chicken on a Stick is a Southern favorite, and not too bad on the healthy eating scale as long as the bread-crumbs come from good freshly baked bread and the oil is fresh and not hydrogenated.
Even people who have never had diabetes, or known someone with diabetes, know that amputation is one of the horrible side effects of this disease. Only 3% of the population of the US have diabetes, but diabetics account for more than half of lower extremity amputations.
Nerve damage and poor blood circulation are common complications of diabetes which make the feet particularly vulnerable to ulcers, infections and gangrene.Any sign of infection in the foot of a diabetic is considered an emergency. Proper foot care and diabetic management prevent ulcers from developing.
It is essential to seek medical attention if any of the following occur:
- Redness and swelling, plus increased warmth around a foot wound
- Extra drainage, pus and odor
- Fever or chills
- The area around the ulcer turns white, blue, or black.
- Unusual firmness around the wound
- Increased pain
If you have diabetes it is important to wear shoes that do not constrict blood flow, or trap moisture. Canvas, leather, or suede shoes are preferred over plastic or other non-porous materials.
Should an ulcer develop, there first thing to do is take pressure off the wound. You may need to wear special shoes, or possibly a brace or even a special cast. A wheelchair or crutches may be necessary for awhile. Anything that relieves pressure on the ulcer will speed up the healing process.
Treatments to remove dead or infected skin include using a whirlpool bath or wet to dry dressings. These are put on wet, and as the dressing dries, it pulls off dead tissue. Your doctor, or a nurse, may need to debride the area, cutting away dead tissue and skin and cleaning the wound well.
The idea of developing a foot ulcer is really scary, but you can greatly lessen the possibility by carefully managing your blood sugar and paying close attention to your feet.
If you are diabetic, your blood glucose levels are too high. One of the many effects this can have is damage to your blood vesselsand nerves, particularly in the hands and feet. Nerve damage can cause you to lose feeling in the extremities, so that you may not even feel a cut or small sore. Damage to blood vessels reduces the amount of blood, and therefore oxygen, getting to the hands and feet, which means that any sores or infections will take longer to heal. Hands are not a huge problem because you can see what you cannot feel, and you can deal with cuts and sores immediately.
Feet are much more susceptible to blisters which can easily turn to ulcers and infections. You can’t easily see what is happening to your feet, and – because we wear shoes – foot hygiene is both more difficult and more important. Untreated ulcers can lead to gangrene and amputation, and any sign of infection in the foot of a person with diabetes should be considered a medical emergency.
Pregnancy hormones are chemicals secreted by the endocrine glands that control the physiological process of pregnancy, from conception to delivery.
List of pregnancy hormones and their functions;
1. Human chorionic gonadotropin; made by the placenta forming cells chorion /placenta, it is found in the blood after 9-10 days of conception and in the urine 12- 14 days.
It nourishes the fertilized egg (corpus luteum) after it is fertilized and implanted in the uterus.
2. Estrogen; this hormone is produced for the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, after which the placenta takes over its production
Its main function is to stop lactation, ovulation and menstruation, by inhibiting the activities of prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.
It also acts on the ductal system of the breast causing growth in preparation for lactation, it makes the uterus grow, and causes softening and relaxation of pelvic girdle.
3. Progesterone; initially secreted by corpus luteum, and later by the placenta.
Its main function is to maintain the endometrium by causing endometrial glands to secret nutrients used by the fetus. It also reduces the maternal immune response so that the baby is not rejected.
It relaxes the muscles in other to prevent premature expulsion of fetus and caused development of milk glands in readiness for lactation
4. Prolactin; secreted by maternal anterior lobe of pituitary gland, responsible for lactation after delivery when the levels of estrogen and progesterone are reduced.
5. Relaxin; softens the cervix, causes relaxation of the pelvic ligaments and muscles thereby inhibiting muscular contraction.
6. Human placenta lactogen, produced by placenta, its main function is to regulate feto-placenta growth, by converting fat in maternal diet to energy for fetal use.
Human beings need water to survive and carry out their day to day activities. Below we will see why water is essential for survival.
It is necessary for the proper function of the brain. A large percent of the brain nearly 90% is water. When the body is denied water, brain functioning is inhibited. Consequently, leads to one suffering from migraine. Other cells in the body as well require water to function effectively.
Water acts as a medium of transporting nutrients to the body. Since it is a solvent, the nutrients in food dissolve in it and are distributed throughout the body. Water is the medium in which protein digestion takes place for the nutrients to be solely absorbed into the body.
Regulation of body temperature is the other function of water. This occurs in different ways. First, through sweat whereby water evaporates from the body. This brings about a homeostatic cooling effect to the body as well as toxic removal. Also, it is a good storage of heat which ensures temperature balance in the body.
Furthermore, it protects vital organs like spinal cord in the body by acting as a lubricant. This reduces the chances of arthritis and back pain. Organs like the eyes are protected against shock which can cause damage.
Re-hydration is the other purpose of water. We lose a lot of water through sweating urination and diarrhea. Due to the vigorous activities in our day to day activities, we tend to lose water which should be replenished. It is, therefore, advisable to take water to restore the lost fluids.
Lastly, it helps in digestion. When the food is broken down, water is needed to dissolve the minerals and some other nutrients. Some vitamins need to dissolve in water in order to be transported to the target organs.
Oral re-hydration therapy, is a salt sugar solution, given to rehydrate an individual, especially children dehydrated from diarrhea, or given to replace lost fluid and electrolytes during diarrhea to prevent dehydration.
Items needed for oral re-hydration therapy preparation;
A clean bowl
A clean pot
A calibrated jug
How to prepare ORS at home;
Wash your hands with clean water and soap. Wash utensils with soap and clean water. Measure one liter of water and pour into the pot boil and allow cooling. Put eight leveled tablespoons of sugar into the bowl. Add one leveled spoon of salt. Pour boiled water into the bowl containing salt, and sugar, and stir. Give this solution to the child in place of water as often as needed and discard the remaining one at the end of the day.
Note; the above solution is adequate for mild diarrhea without serious electrolyte loss, as it does not contain the crucial electrolyte potassium.
To add potassium in the solution, add one spoon of baking soda (not baking powder), and 8 ounces of fresh 100% orange juice filtered.
How to administer;
Babies; give 300-500mls of the solution to babies and toddlers.
Children; give one liter of solution to children
Adult; give three liters of solution to adults
Uttermost care should be observed when making this solution, as it is one of the reasons why home treatment for diarrhea fails is incorrectly made solution
Too much sugar, in the solution, can increase the diarrhea by causing the lumen of the intestines to absorb more water, and too much salt can cause imbalanced electrolyte levels.
Lung cancer and emphysema are respiratory diseases caused by smoking. Emphysema is a chronic lung disease that causes narrowing and clogging of esophagus. The carcinogen smoked damage lung cells causing cancer. Moreover, the tar in tobacco coats the lungs causing cancer. Nicotine and carbon monoxide in cigarette smoked increases heart rate hence blood pressure. This strains the heart and blood vessels which in turn cause stroke and heart attack by slowing blood flow and cutting off oxygen to the feet and hands.
Nicotine affects nerve muscles which lead to tremors and shaking of the limbs and entire body. Bad breath in addition to oral cancer persists in smokers. In women it causes premature depletion and aging of ovaries. Components of cigarette smoke can cause DNA damage in the ovarian follicle. This will increase the chances of infertility. Smoking is equally hazardous in pregnant women. Smoking makes the placenta thin hence necessitating cesarean section. It can also cause the water breaking too early leading to premature birth.
Smoking can cause blindness. People who smoke have a greater risk of developing macular degeneration. Chemicals in tobacco cause morphological damage to the retina. Smoking discolors teeth. The nicotine in tobacco goes to the grooves of teeth and sticks on the surface and is hard to remove by brushing only. Furthermore, gingivitis can also be caused by smoking. Nonetheless, addiction is a disadvantage of smoking nicotine makes smoking addictive and one has to go through rehabilitation. A smoker incurs additional expenses in buying cigarettes.
Sleep is very important to the human body and when one is deprived of it, many problems to the body could occur as well as various complications in extreme cases. Again, the amount of sleep as well as the quality is very important and might vary from one person to another. Some of the side-effects and complications as a result of sleep deprivation include:
(a) General irritability, weakness in your muscles, your speech will become slurred and will also experience some blurred vision as well as headaches every now and then.
(b) Your risk for heart diseases, stroke, diabetes and other cardiovascular diseases is greatly increased for those that continually have problems with sleep. Those that do not get the proper amount of sleep that their body requires.
(c) There will be a decrease in your productivity and in your alertness is another major side-effect of sleep deprivation. Your ability to stay alert will be compromised hence reducing your productivity as our daily activities are concerned. Some of the mistakes that we do and accidents that occur could have been avoided if we had gotten quality sleep.
(d) Your immunity and entire defense system of your body is at great risk whenever we are deprived of sleep making you prone to diseases as the threshold for sickness is low.
(a) It has been found that some of the mental problems are as a results of continually sleep deprivation and so psychiatrists would thoroughly examine the client as well as get to know how much of sleep the client gets on a daily basis.
(b) In children that have less sleep over time, disease conditions like hyperactive and attention deficit hyperactive disorders could develop. Their attention span and activity will be affected greatly by the amount of sleep they get and so it is important that the caregivers ensure that our kids get the most sleep essential for their age requirement.
(c) The worst complication is when some of our bodily functions are shut down as a result if a defense mechanism from continuous sleep deprivation leading to a condition called sleep deprived coma.
In conclusion; sleep on its own is therapeutic as well as prophylactic to the human person and so everyone should get the most out of it.
Chemotherapy are drugs that are used in treating cancer, also known as anticancer drugs. Normally chemotherapy will affect both the cancer cells, as well as reach the entire body and therefore affecting every cell including those that are normal. So this explains why chemotherapy has a lot of side-effects depending on the type of chemotherapy administered and the type of cancer .
These drugs are usually given directly into the blood stream, applied on the skin, or as a pill via the mouth, intramuscular through the muscle and through the fast tissue as well.
Here are some of the common side-effects that cut across the major types of chemotherapeutic drugs available:
1. Hair loss (alopecia) that is usually reversible.
2. These drugs will reduce the number of blood cell counts, e.g. white blood cells which are responsible for immunity.
3. Severe nausea and vomiting that could go on for a number of days.
4. Damage to some of the vital organs like the heart, kidney and the lungs.
Other side-effects that are more specific to different drugs include, diarrhea, allergic reactions to that particular drug, presence of mouth ulcers, presence of rashes on the skin, some drugs will make you become photosensitive. Constipation and general problems with the digestive system will also accompany chemotherapy .
In conclusion, before one is to start this therapy, it is important for them to be informed on some of these side-effects and for specific drugs so that they will be able to cope and comply whenever these side-effects appear. Other ways that can help in mitigating these side-effects could be employed by the health professionals to increase the level of comfort to the client.
Diabetes is an insidious disease with many complications. These include:
Eye Complications include glaucoma, cataracts and other eye problemsand diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes is the primary cause of blindness in adults between 20 and 74.
Neuropathy and Foot Complications
Neuropathy is damage to nerves by high levels of glucose in the blood. It can cause numbness and pain in the arms and hands, legs and feet as well as problems with the internal organs.
Stress, high blood pressure, stroke and heart attack
These interrelated problems go hand in hand with obesity, poor diet and lack of exercise which often cause diabetes. The diabetic is at much greater risk of stroke and heart attack than the rest of the population.
Hearing loss is caused by damage (neuropathy) to small blood vessels and nerves of the inner ear.
Oral problems are made worse by diabetes due to a reduced ability to fight the bacterial infections that cause gingivitis and periodonditis.
Gastroparesis, also known as delayed gastric emptying, is caused by damage to the vagus nerve. Gastroesophageal reflux, nausea and abdominal bloating are caused by slow passage of food out of the stomach.
Kidney disease and urologic problems
Continuous high blood sugar overworks the kidneys, which cease working properly, leading eventually to kidney failure.At the same time the patient may experience overactive bladder, urge incontinence-leakage and retention of urine.
Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. Blood vessels in the legs are blocked by fatty deposits and blood flow decreases.
Both men and women may lose interest in sex. Women may suffer from vaginal dryness or pain during intercourse and men may suffer from erectile disfunction.
Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication in diabetic patients resulting from a shortage of insulin. This causes the body to burn fatty acids producing acidic ketone bodies.Dehydration, deep gasping breaths, vomiting.